Integrand, specified as a function handle, defines the function
to be integrated from xmin to xmax.
For scalar-valued problems, the function y = fun(x) must
accept a vector argument, x, and return a vector
result, y. This generally means that fun must
use array operators instead of matrix operators. For example, use .* (times)
rather than * (mtimes). If you set the 'ArrayValued' option
to true, fun must accept a scalar
and return an array of fixed size.

Lower limit of x, specified as a real (finite
or infinite) scalar value or a complex (finite) scalar value. If either xmin or xmax are
complex, integral approximates the path integral
from xmin to xmax over a straight
line path.

Data Types: double | single Complex Number Support: Yes

Upper limit of x, specified as a real (finite
or infinite) scalar value or a complex (finite) scalar value. If either xmin or xmax are
complex, integral approximates the path integral
from xmin to xmax over a straight
line path.

Data Types: double | single Complex Number Support: Yes

Name-Value Pair Arguments

Specify optional comma-separated pairs of Name,Value arguments.
Name is the argument
name and Value is the corresponding
value. Name must appear
inside single quotes (' ').
You can specify several name and value pair
arguments in any order as Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN.

Example: 'AbsTol',1e-12 sets the absolute
error tolerance to approximately 12 decimal places of accuracy.

Absolute error tolerance, specified as the comma-separated pair
consisting of 'AbsTol' and a nonnegative real number. integral uses
the absolute error tolerance to limit an estimate of the absolute
error, |q – Q|, where q is
the computed value of the integral and Q is the
(unknown) exact value. integral might provide
more decimal places of precision if you decrease the absolute error
tolerance. The default value is 1e-10.

Note:AbsTol and RelTol work
together. integral might satisfy the absolute
error tolerance or the relative error tolerance, but not necessarily
both. For more information on using these tolerances, see the Tips section.

Example: 'AbsTol',1e-12 sets the absolute
error tolerance to approximately 12 decimal places of accuracy.

Relative error tolerance, specified as the comma-separated pair
consisting of 'RelTol' and a nonnegative real number. integral uses
the relative error tolerance to limit an estimate of the relative
error, |q – Q|/|Q|,
where q is the computed value of the integral and Q is
the (unknown) exact value. integral might provide
more significant digits of precision if you decrease the relative
error tolerance. The default value is 1e-6.

Note:RelTol and AbsTol work
together. integral might satisfy the relative
error tolerance or the absolute error tolerance, but not necessarily
both. For more information on using these tolerances, see the Tips section.

Example: 'RelTol',1e-9 sets the relative error
tolerance to approximately 9 significant digits.

Array-valued function flag, specified as the comma-separated
pair consisting of 'ArrayValued' and either false, true, 0,
or 1. Set this flag to true when
you want to integrate over an array-valued function. The shape of fun(x) can
be a vector, matrix, or N-D array.

Example: 'ArrayValued',true indicates that
the integrand is an array-valued function.

Integration waypoints, specified as the comma-separated pair
consisting of 'Waypoints' and a vector of real
or complex numbers. Use waypoints to indicate any points in the integration
interval you would like the integrator to use. You can use waypoints
to integrate efficiently across discontinuities of the integrand.
Specify the locations of the discontinuities in the vector you supply.

You can specify waypoints when you want to perform complex contour
integration. If xmin, xmax,
or any entry of the waypoints vector is complex, the integration is
performed over a sequence of straight line paths in the complex plane.

Example: 'Waypoints',[1+1i,1-1i] specifies
two complex waypoints along the interval of integration.

Data Types: single | double Complex Number Support: Yes

Do not use waypoints to specify singularities. Instead,
split the interval and add the results of separate integrations with
the singularities at the endpoints.

The integral function attempts
to satisfy:

abs(q - Q) <= max(AbsTol,RelTol*abs(q))

where q is
the computed value of the integral and Q is the
(unknown) exact value. The absolute and relative tolerances provide
a way of trading off accuracy and computation time. Usually, the relative
tolerance determines the accuracy of the integration. However if abs(q) is
sufficiently small, the absolute tolerance determines the accuracy
of the integration. You should generally specify both absolute and
relative tolerances together.

If you specify a complex value for xmin, xmax,
or any waypoint, all of your limits and waypoints must be finite.

If you are specifying single-precision limits of integration,
or if fun returns single-precision results, you
might need to specify larger absolute and relative error tolerances.