Documentation Center

  • Trial Software
  • Product Updates

estimateFundamentalMatrix

Estimate fundamental matrix from corresponding points in stereo images

Syntax

  • estimateFundamentalMatrix
  • F = estimateFundamentalMatrix(matchedPoints1,matchedPoints2)
  • [F,inliersIndex] = estimateFundamentalMatrix(matchedPoints1,matchedPoints2)
  • [F,inliersIndex,status] = estimateFundamentalMatrix(matchedPoints1,matchedPoints2)
  • [F,inliersIndex,status] = estimateFundamentalMatrix(matchedPoints1,matchedPoints2,Name,Value)

Description

estimateFundamentalMatrix estimates the fundamental matrix from corresponding points in stereo images. This function can be configured to use all corresponding points or to exclude outliers. You can exclude outliers by using a robust estimation technique such as random-sample consensus (RANSAC).

F = estimateFundamentalMatrix(matchedPoints1,matchedPoints2) returns the 3-by-3 fundamental matrix, F, using the least median of squares (LMedS) method. The input points can be M-by-2 matrices of M number of [x y] coordinates, or SURFPoints, MSERRegions, or cornerPoints object.

[F,inliersIndex] = estimateFundamentalMatrix(matchedPoints1,matchedPoints2) returns logical indices, inliersIndex, for the inliers used to compute the fundamental matrix. The inliersIndex output is an M-by-1 vector. The function sets the elements of the vector to true when the corresponding point was used to compute the fundamental matrix. The elements are set to false if they are not used.

[F,inliersIndex,status] = estimateFundamentalMatrix(matchedPoints1,matchedPoints2) returns a status code.

[F,inliersIndex,status] = estimateFundamentalMatrix(matchedPoints1,matchedPoints2,Name,Value) sets parameters for finding outliers and computing the fundamental matrix F, with each specified parameter set to the specified value with one or more comma-separated parameters, specified as name-value pairs.

Code Generation Support:
Compile-time constant input: Method, OutputClass, DistanceType, and ReportRuntimeError.
Supports MATLAB® Function block: Yes.
Code Generation Support, Usage Notes, and Limitations

Examples

expand all

Compute Fundamental Matrix

Use the RANSAC method to compute the fundamental matrix.

The RANSAC method requires that the input points are already putatively matched. We can, for example, use the matchFeatures function for this. Using the RANSAC algorithm eliminates any outliers which may still be contained within putatively matched points.

load stereoPointPairs
fRANSAC = estimateFundamentalMatrix(matchedPoints1,matchedPoints2,'Method', 'RANSAC', 'NumTrials', 2000, 'DistanceThreshold', 1e-4)

Use the Least Median of Squares Method to Find Inliers

Find inliers and compute the fundamental matrix.

Begin by loading the putatively matched points.

load stereoPointPairs
[fLMedS, inliers] = estimateFundamentalMatrix(matchedPoints1,matchedPoints2, 'NumTrials', 2000)

Load the stereo images.

I1 = imread('viprectification_deskLeft.png');
I2 = imread('viprectification_deskRight.png');

Show the putatively matched points.

figure;
showMatchedFeatures(I1, I2, matchedPoints1, matchedPoints2,'montage','PlotOptions',{'ro','go','y--'});
title('Putative point matches');

Show the inlier points.

figure;
showMatchedFeatures(I1, I2, matchedPoints1(inliers,:),matchedPoints2(inliers,:),'montage','PlotOptions',{'ro','go','y--'});
title('Point matches after outliers were removed');

Use the Normalized Eight-Point Algorithm to Compute the Fundamental Matrix

Compute the fundamental matrix for input points which do not contain any outliers.

load stereoPointPairs
inlierPts1 = matchedPoints1(knownInliers, :);
inlierPts2 = matchedPoints2(knownInliers, :);
fNorm8Point = estimateFundamentalMatrix(inlierPts1, inlierPts2,'Method','Norm8Point')

Input Arguments

expand all

matchedPoints1 — Coordinates of corresponding pointsSURFPoints | cornerPoints | MSERRegions | M-by-2 matrix of [x,y] coordinates

Coordinates of corresponding points in image one, specified as an M-by-2 matrix of M number of [x y] coordinates, or as a SURFPoints, MSERRegions, or cornerPoints object. The matchedPoints1 input must contain points which are putatively matched by using a function such as matchFeatures.

matchedPoints2 — Coordinates of corresponding pointsSURFPoints | cornerPoints | MSERRegions | M-by-2 matrix of [x,y] coordinates

Coordinates of corresponding points in image one, specified as an M-by-2 matrix of M number of [x y] coordinates, or as a SURFPoints, MSERRegions, or cornerPoints object. The matchedPoints2 input must contain points which are putatively matched by using a function such as matchFeatures.

Name-Value Pair Arguments

Specify optional comma-separated pairs of Name,Value arguments. Name is the argument name and Value is the corresponding value. Name must appear inside single quotes (' '). You can specify several name and value pair arguments in any order as Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN.

Example: 'Method', 'RANSAC' specifies RANSAC as the method to compute the fundamental matrix.

'Method' — Method used to compute the fundamental matrixLMedS (default) | Norm8Point | RANSAC | MSAC | LTS

Method used to compute the fundamental matrix, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Method' and one of five strings. You can set this parameter to one of the following methods:

Norm8PointNormalized eight-point algorithm. To produce reliable results, the inputs, matchedPoints1 and matchedPoints2 must match precisely.
LMedSLeast Median of Squares. Select this method if you know that at least 50% of the points in matchedPoints1 and matchedPoints2 are inliers.
RANSACRANdom SAmple Consensus. Select this method if you would like to set the distance threshold for the inliers.
MSACM-estimator SAmple Consensus. Select the M-estimator SAmple Consensus method if you would like to set the distance threshold for the inliers. Generally, the MSAC method converges more quickly than the RANSAC method.
LTSLeast Trimmed Squares. Select the Least Trimmed Squares method if you know a minimum percentage of inliers in matchedPoints1 and matchedPoints2. Generally, the LTS method converges more quickly than the LMedS method.

To produce reliable results using the Norm8Point algorithm, the inputs, matchedPoints1 and matchedPoints2, must match precisely. The other methods can tolerate outliers and therefore only require putatively matched input points. You can obtain putatively matched points by using the matchFeatures function.

'OutputClass' — Fundamental matrix class'double' (default) | 'single'

Fundamental matrix class, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'OutputClass' and either the string 'double' or 'single'. This specifies the class for the fundamental matrix and the function's internal computations.

'NumTrials' — Number of random trials for finding the outliers500 (default) | integer

Number of random trials for finding the outliers, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'NumTrials' and an integer value. This parameter applies when you set the Method parameter to LMedS, RANSAC, MSAC, or LTS.

When you set the Method parameter to either LMedS or LTS, the function uses the actual number of trials as the parameter value.

When you set the Method parameter to either RANSAC or MSAC, the function uses the maximum number of trials as the parameter value. The actual number of trials depends on matchedPoints1, matchedPoints2, and the value of the Confidence parameter.

Select the number of random trials to optimize speed and accuracy.

'DistanceType' — Algebraic or Sampson distance type'Sampson' (default) | 'Algebraic'

Algebraic or Sampson distance type, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'DistanceType' and either the Algebraic or Sampson string. The distance type determines whether a pair of points is an inlier or outlier. This parameter applies when you set the Method parameter to LMedS, RANSAC, MSAC, or LTS.

    Note:   For faster computations, set this parameter to Algebraic. For a geometric distance, set this parameter to Sampson.

Data Types: char

'DistanceThreshold' — Distance threshold for finding outliers0.01 (default)

Distance threshold for finding outliers, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'DistanceThreshold' and a positive value. This parameter applies when you set the Method parameter to RANSAC or MSAC.

'Confidence' — Desired confidence for finding maximum number of inliers99 (default) | scalar

Desired confidence for finding maximum number of inliers, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Confidence' and a percentage scalar value in the range (0 100). This parameter applies when you set the Method parameter to RANSAC or MSAC.

'InlierPercentage' — Minimum percentage of inliers in input points50 (default) | scalar

Minimum percentage of inliers in input points, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'InlierPercentage' and percentage scalar value in the range (0 100). Specify the minimum percentage of inliers in matchedPoints1 and matchedPoints2. This parameter applies when you set the Method parameter to LTS.

'ReportRuntimeError' — Report runtime errortrue (default) | false

Report runtime error, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'ReportRuntimeError' and a logical value. Set this parameter to true to report run-time errors when the function cannot compute the fundamental matrix from matchedPoints1 and matchedPoints2. When you set this parameter to false, you can check the status output to verify validity of the fundamental matrix.

Output Arguments

expand all

F — Fundamental matrix 3-by-3 matrix

Fundamental matrix, returns as a 3-by-3 matrix that is computed from the points in the inputs matchedPoints1 and matchedPoints2.

inliersIndex — Inliers indexM-by-1 logical vector

Inliers index, returned as an M-by-1 logical index vector. An element set to true means that the corresponding indexed matched points in matchedPoints1 and matchedPoints2 were used to compute the fundamental matrix. An element set to false means the indexed points were not used for the computation.

Data Types: logical

status — Status code0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

Status code, returned as one of the following possible values:

statusValue
0:No error.
1:Either matchedPoints1 or matchedPoints2 or both, are not M-by-2 matrices.
2:matchedPoints1 and matchedPoints2 do not have the same number of points.
3:matchedPoints1 and matchedPoints2 do not contain enough points. Norm8Point, RANSAC, and MSAC require at least 8 points, LMedS 16 points, and LTS requires ceil(800/InlierPercentage).
4:Not enough inliers found.

Data Types: int32

More About

expand all

Algorithms

Computing the Fundamental Matrix

This function computes the fundamental matrix using the normalized eight-point algorithm [1]

When you choose the Norm8Point method, the function uses all points in matchedPoints1 and matchedPoints2 to compute the fundamental matrix.

When you choose any other method, the function uses the following algorithm to exclude outliers and compute the fundamental matrix from inliers:

  1. Initialize the fundamental matrix, F, to a 3-by-3 matrix of zeros.

  2. Set the loop counter n, to zero, and the number of loops N, to the number of random trials specified.

  3. Loop through the following steps while n < N:

    1. Randomly select 8 pairs of points from matchedPoints1 and matchedPoints2.

    2. Use the selected 8 points to compute a fundamental matrix, f, by using the normalized 8-point algorithm.

    3. Compute the fitness of f for all points in matchedPoints1 and matchedPoints2.

    4. If the fitness of f is better than F, replace F with f.

      For RANSAC and MSAC, update N.

    5. n = n + 1

Number of Random Samplings for RANSAC and MSAC Methods

The RANSAC and MSAC methods update the number of random trials N, for every iteration in the algorithm loop. The function resets N, according to the following:

N = min( N, ).
Where, p represents the confidence parameter you specified, and r is calculated as follows:
, where if and otherwise.

Distance Types

The function provides two distance types, algebraic distance and Sampson distance, to measure the distance of a pair of points according to a fundamental matrix. The following equations are used for each type, with u representing matchedPoints1 and v representing matchedPoints2.

Algebraic distance:
Sampson distance:

where represents the index of the corresponding points, and , the square of the j-th entry of the vector .

Fitness of Fundamental Matrix for Corresponding Points

The following table summarizes how each method determines the fitness of the computed fundamental matrix:

MethodMeasure of Fitness
LMedS , the number of input points. The smaller the value, the better the fitness.
RANSAC , where if and otherwise, t represents the specified threshold. The greater the value, the better the fitness.
MSAC . The smaller the value, the better the fitness.
LTS , where is the first lowest value of an (N x q) pair of points. Where q represents the inlier percentage you specified. The smaller the value, the better the fitness.

References

[1] Hartley, R., A. Zisserman, Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision, Cambridge University Press, 2003.

[2] Rousseeuw, P., A. Leroy, Robust Regression and Outlier Detection, John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

[3] Torr, P. H. S., and A. Zisserman, MLESAC: A New Robust Estimator with Application to Estimating Image Geometry, Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 2000.

See Also

| | | | | | | |

Was this topic helpful?